Publications Details
Publications Details



Author: Amani Alfarra, Eric Kemp-Benedict, Heinz Hötzl ,Nayif Sader, Ben Sonneveld, Wasim Ali, Leif Wolf

Year: 2009

Publisher: European Water Resources Association (EWRA)


Water in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is extremely scarce, yet, key in the country’s economic development and peace negotiations with neighbouring states. In the Jordan Valley, one of the most productive agricultural areas in the Middle East, water comes primarily from fresh (surface and ground water) and treated wastewater (brackish and blended water) sources. Due to a fast growing population and expanding agricultural sector additional demands for new water resources are expected to increase soon. Treated wastewater could be employed as a suitable alternative for agricultural irrigation, thereby relieving pressure for fresh water resources that satisfies the demand in urban areas. The SMART project (Sustainable Management of Available Water Resources with Innovative Technologies), jointly financed by the German government with the Ministry of Water and Irrigation in Jordan (MWI), recognises that water markets are increasingly relying on instruments that reallocate the available water between competing users in an efficient and equitable way so as to minimise the socioeconomic impact of water scarcity. As treated waste water could play a prominent role in these future water markets there is a clear need for continued development of a policy tool that ensures that this reallocation process includes treated waste water sources. This also motivates the present study that presents
the initial calibration of the Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) model that will be used to evaluate alternative water supply options in the Jordan Valley. WEAP is particularly suitable for the intended purpose as it easily accommodates extensive primary and secondary spatial data sets for our empirical analysis and allows the simulation of various water supply and demand scenarios, specifically for agricultural production. This paper reports on an important first step towards evaluating the use of treated wastewater in complementing existing fresh water resources: the implementation and calibration of dam operating rules within the WEAP21 application. It is shown that with simple model operating rules it is possible to reproduce historical dam volumes sufficiently accurate to be used for scenario evaluation with some confidence.