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Title: HYDROCHEMICAL VARIABILITY OF SPRING WATER IN THE UPPER JORDAN RIFT VALLEY

Author: M. Ghanem, S. Ghannam, A. Tamimi, H. Hoetzl, L. Wolf and W. Ali

Year: 2009

Publisher: European Water Resources Association (EWRA)

Description:

The hydrochemical characteristics of twenty springs, distributed along the north – south cross section of the Upper Jordan Rift Valley were determined. The major ions of fifty water spring samples: Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, NO3- and HCO3- were analyzed in addition to heavy metals including: Fe, Zn, Li, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Cu, Mn, Al, Cd, Ba, Pb and Bi. An increase in the concentration trend of Na+, SO42-, NO3-, as well as of Fe, Co, Bi, Li was noticed towards the south caused by natural and manmade polluted sources. This put remarks on the surface – ground water interaction sources. The industrial wastewater flow discharge in Faria area increased the concentrations of Co, Bi, Li (from west to east) in the samples taken from the area threatening the quality of groundwater. The majority of the spring water samples fall into the normal earth alkaline water group with prevailing bicarbonate and sulfate or chloride. The southern springs are classified as normal earth alkaline water with prevailing bicarbonate, which are classified as high TDS and Na – Cl water type. The benefit for maximized hygienic water in quantitative and qualitative manners was checked through qualitative water changes.