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Title: PHYTOREMEDIATION AS A NATURAL PROCESS TO DECREASE ROAD SALT IMPACTS ON SOIL AND WATER RESOURCES

Author: R. Amanimehr

Year: 2009

Publisher: European Water Resources Association (EWRA)

Description:

For increasing driving safety during the cold winters in Nordic countries like Sweden, regional road authorities apply considerable amount of deicing chemicals like salt, in the roads. The kind of salt which is generally used is sodium chloride (NRC, 1991). It is now very clear that chemical deicers have negative effects on the environment. Salt activities have adverse effects on soil, water supplies, vegetation and ecosystem. In this research the capability of Phytoremediation process as a new clean technology has been discussed. In this method plants are used for in situ soil cleanup (UNEP, 2007). Regarding road salt control, the suitable plant must tolerate salinity and frost. In this project Tall Wheatgrass has been introduced as a first nominee for this purpose. This plant is very resistant in saline environment and is able to tolerate winter frost (USDA, 2007). It is
predicted that this plant can be used as a natural controller of road salt distribution. By establishing this plant in each side of the highways in width of at least 5 meters and making buffer zones we can control about 500 kg
NaCl/Km/year. In very sensitive areas where the water resources are close to the highways or the geometrical conditions are in a way that quality of water resources are in danger this buffer zone could be wider for better protection. By Tall Wheatgrass buffer zones of 10 meters in each side of the highways we can control nearly one tone sodium chloride in each kilometer per year. 500 kg of sodium chloride is removed by harvesting and the same amount will be immobilized in the roots tissue. The results of this project can be validated by field
experiments. For any special case, field experiments are recommended before applying this method.